Gravel, pebble and sand are non-organic materials that are divided into specific grain classes, also called aggregates, divided into two parts as crushing and natural. This material is used extensively in concrete, light concrete production, road filling and coating, construction plaster.
The sand as a building material is a loose textured clastic sediment with a grain size of 0.063-2 mm. The grain size is between 0.063-0.25 mm and the sand is between 1-2-1.2 mm. It is a mixture of sand quartz, feldspar grains, rock residues, mica and glaucony. The surface properties, hardness, proportion of clay and silt fractions of the grains are important factors determining the properties of sand. Besides, artificial sand (stone flour) obtained by breaking and classification of limestone (CaCO2) originated rocks is also widely used. There are significant standard differences and nomenclature differences between countries and regions depending on their origin, production patterns and grain sizes.
The crushed aggregates, which are called gravel and natural raw materials, are between 2-128 mm. Fine aggregates with a particle size of 2-8 mm and coarse aggregates between 8-32 mm. Due to the existence of large geological structures that can be used for sand, gravel and crushed stone reserves, there are reserves that can meet the needs for many years. Due to the fact that it can be provided in a wide and wide area throughout the country, there is no problem about reserve. However, the necessity of keeping the unit costs low due to the usage area restricts the reserve. The transportation costs for the aggregate, which are far from the consumption areas, have an important place within the unit costs. In addition to being away from consumption areas, land use limitations and environmental protection problems limit the use of existing reserves. At the moment of urbanization, bottlenecks in the supply of sand, gravel and chippings occur due to production constraints in the immediate vicinity of big cities.
Although there is no healthy information about the quarries in our country, it is possible to reach the data explained by the State Institute of Statistics. In addition to this, it is possible to make some estimations based on the usage areas in general and the production and consumption values made in this way reflect the actual consumption values. Moving from the total concrete production from the approach used in the estimation of large aggregate consumption amounts gives very reliable results. For this purpose, it is assumed that 1 m3 of concrete is consumed per year per person.